Bihar - Kosi River

Hier einige interessante Details zum Kosi River:

The Koshi has an average water flow (discharge) of 1 564 m³/s or55,000 cu ft/s. During floods, it increases to as much as 18 times theaverage. The greatest recorded flood was 24,200 m³/s(850,000 cu ft/s) on August 24, 1954. The Kosi Barrage has been designed for a peak flood of27,014 m³/s (954,000 cu ft/s).

Owing to extensive soil erosion and landslides in its upper catchment by factors both natural and human, the silt yield of the Kosi is about 19 m³/ha/year (10 cu yd/acre/yr), one of the highest in the world.The Arun, with its origins in Tibet, brings the greatest amount of coarse silt in proportion to its total sediment load. The river is able to transport its heavy sediment load down the steep gradients and narrow gorges in the mountains and foothills, but on the plains beyond Chatra where slopes are flatter the sediment load is deposited in an immense alluvial fan that has grown to an area of about 15 000 km². This fan extends some 180 km from its apex where it leaves the foothills, across the international border into Bihar state and on to the Ganges. Instead of a single well-defined channel, the river has numerous interlacing channels that shift laterally over the fan from time to time. Without sufficient channelisation, floods spread out very widely. The record flow of 24 200 m³/s is equivalent to water a meter deep and more than 24 kilometers wide, flowing down the slight slope of the alluvial fan at one meter per second.
The Kosi's alluvial fan has fertile soil and abundant groundwater in a part of the world where agricultural land is in acutely limited supply in relation to population. Subsistence farmers must balance the threat of starvation with that of floods. As a result, the flood-prone area is densely populated and subject to heavy loss of life. Floods have caused the Kosi to be called the“River of Sorrow”. It contributes disproportionately to India having more deaths in floods than any other country except Bangladesh.

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